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  • Writer's pictureSophia Satapathy

E-commerce Sites Must Take Responsibility or Face Liability: What the Delhi HC Counterfeit Ruling Means for Consumers

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E-commerce has become an integral part of shopping in today's digital world. However, with growth comes new challenges. In a recent court case, sportswear brand Puma filed a lawsuit against popular e-commerce platform IndiaMart, alleging that counterfeiters were selling fake Puma products on their site. Puma argued that IndiaMart was facilitating infringement of their brand by allowing fake products to be sold. IndiaMart, on the other hand, claimed they were only providing an online marketplace and could not monitor every listing.

In this case, the Delhi High Court's ruling is important because it holds e-commerce sites responsible for infringing sellers on their platforms. The court stated that online marketplaces cannot become "havens for infringers" or allow protocols that help counterfeiters. While e-commerce allows genuine business, the court said sites must protect brands from fakes. This ruling aims to strike a balance - platforms can enable commerce but cannot ignore intellectual property violations for profit.

This case will impact how e-commerce sites manage brand security online in the future. The court implies that marketplaces need better checks to prevent counterfeits while enabling real sellers. How platforms implement these changes while supporting diverse businesses will be key as online and offline commerce increasingly converge in the digital economy.

No More Safe Harbour for Facilitating Infringement

In a recent judgment, the Delhi High Court denied safe harbor protection for e-commerce platforms that actively aid counterfeiters. The Court observed that while the commercial interests of e-commerce websites are understandable, they cannot compromise on protecting the intellectual property rights of others.

Some key highlights from the judgment:

  • E-commerce platforms cannot become a haven for infringers and allow easy money from the sale of counterfeit goods. Their protocols must not enable infringement.

  • If platforms do not reasonably stop infringing listings or provide trademark search options, they are aiding counterfeiting.

  • The mere role of hosting content is not enough to claim a safe harbor if it knowingly facilitates infringement for profits.

  • While profit is acceptable, sellers' IPR must be protected. Commercial gains cannot outweigh legal rights.

  • Platforms can reapply for safe harbor by providing sufficient checks to prevent misuse by counterfeiters for infringing activities.

So, the Court ruled that actively helping counterfeiters does not allow e-commerce platforms to shelter under safe harbor provisions. Their systems must not enable the infringement of others' intellectual property.

Increased Compliance Burden for Marketplaces

The recent Delhi High Court orders have significantly increased the compliance burden for e-commerce marketplaces. The courts have made it clear that marketplaces cannot become a haven for infringers. They will now have to put in place stringent mechanisms to verify sellers and scrutinize product listings. 

Marketplaces will also need to monitor their platforms closely and remove any infringing listings within a very short period of time of receiving complaints. Failing to do so could make them liable for sellers' copyright or trademark infringements. These compliance requirements will involve substantial costs for marketplaces. 

Non-compliance may lead to legal penalties, and brands may sue to take down marketplaces. Overall, the rulings aim to make e-commerce more accountable while protecting the intellectual property rights of rights holders.

Empowering Consumers in Fighting Fakes

Consumers play an important role in curbing the sale of counterfeit products online. Here are some ways in which consumers can fight fakes:


Consumers should be aware of the signs to identify counterfeit products, such as poor quality packaging, incorrect labels, spelling mistakes, etc. This will help them make informed purchases.


Consumers must be encouraged to report any fake products found on e-commerce platforms. Platforms should provide simple reporting options and be obligated to examine complaints. Repeated failures should be brought to the authorities' attention.

Legal Recourse 

If platforms fail to take adequate measures despite reporting counterfeits, consumers should have the right to initiate class action suits. This will help apply pressure on platforms to curb the sale of fakes on their websites vigilantly. The recent court orders have strengthened consumers' ability to fight fakes.

Consumer education, reporting mechanisms, and legal options can greatly protect consumer interests and intellectual property rights online. E-commerce platforms must also work closely with rights owners and consumers to build a more honest marketplace.

What to Do if You Receive Counterfeit Products

If you receive counterfeit or fake products that infringe on trademarks or intellectual property rights, here are the steps you can take:

  1. Contact the marketplace/seller—When you suspect the products are counterfeit, Reach out to the marketplace platform you purchased from (such as an e-commerce website) or the individual seller. Provide photos or details about why you believe the products are fake. Request an immediate return/refund, as selling counterfeit goods is against most marketplace policies.

  2. File a complaint with relevant authorities—If the marketplace/seller refuses to help or you cannot get your money back, you can file a complaint with appropriate authorities, such as the local police, cyber cell, or consumer court. Provide details of the transaction and evidence that the products are counterfeit. This notifies the authorities about the sale of fake products, and they can investigate further.

  3. Consider legal action under the Consumer Protection Act—If many counterfeit products are being sold, affecting many consumers, you can consider legal recourse as permitted under the Consumer Protection Act 1986. You can file a case in consumer court or even an intellectual property right infringement case in the high court against the marketplace platform for not ensuring adequate safeguards that led to counterfeiting. The legal action can seek compensation and request the court to direct the marketplace to tighten controls.

Here are the steps to file a legal case under the Consumer Protection Act 1986 if you have received counterfeit products:

  1. Gather Evidence - Collect all documents related to the purchase, such as invoices, emails, photos of the fake products, etc. This will serve as evidence in your case.

  2. Send Notice - Send a legal notice to the concerned marketplace platform and seller via registered post or email, giving them 15 days to acknowledge the fake products sold and take necessary action.

  3. File Complaint - If no satisfactory response is received, you can file a complaint with the Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum or 'Consumer Court' in your district. Consumer Forums are set up at district, state, and national levels.

  4. Mention Parties - Mention you as the 'complainant' and name the marketplace platform and seller 'opposite parties' in your complaint.

  5. Specify Allegations - Provide details of the purchase transaction and how the products received are counterfeit. Explain how its sale violates your rights under the Consumer Protection Act.

  6. Seek Relief - Specify the compensation and other orders sought, such as stopping future sales of fakes. The relief can be a refund, damages for losses caused, etc.

  7. Pay Court Fees - Submit the filled complaint and the prescribed court fees. The forum will issue a notice to opposite parties and schedule a hearing.

  8. Present Your Case - On the scheduled date, present your case before the Presiding Officer of the Consumer Forum. You can engage a lawyer for assistance.

  9. Get Justice - The forum will typically pass an order within 3 months. You can appeal to State/National Consumer Commissions for remedy if unsatisfied.

Following this process can help get legal recourse against purchasing counterfeit goods sold via online marketplaces.

First, resolve issues directly with the marketplace or seller. But if they do not take appropriate action against counterfeiting, you can knock on the authorities' doors through complaints and consider legal remedies to curb such infringing activities. Your case can help set important legal precedents in this area.

Win for Brand Owners in Fighting Fake Goods

  • Court support for brands against counterfeits: The Delhi High Court has supported brand owners in their fight against fake goods. The court said e-commerce platforms cannot allow the sale of counterfeit products and must protect genuine sellers' intellectual property rights.

  • There are options available to report and take legal action: Brand owners can ask e-commerce sites to remove fake listings of their products. They can also file lawsuits against platforms for not stopping the sale of counterfeits. The court will help genuine companies protect their brands and businesses.

  • Positive signal for stronger IPR enforcement online: The judgment tells e-commerce sites to be more responsible. They need better checks to avoid fake products. This will encourage more investment in new brands and innovation. Strong action against fakes will help consumers and support original businesses.

Safeguarding Consumer Interests is Priority

  • Stopping fake and defective products from being sold: E-commerce sites should not allow fake or low-quality duplicate products on their platforms. This protects customers from buying something thinking it is a real branded product.

  • Fair shopping for everyone: All sellers on online shopping apps should get equal opportunities to sell authentic products. This promotes honest competition.

  • Customers get real things they pay for: People should be able to find genuine products and brands when they shop online. This ensures a real shopping experience. E-commerce sites must verify sellers and products to maintain trust in their marketplaces.

  • Laws must apply equally to all online businesses: The law requires all websites where products are sold, including big online shopping apps, to take steps to stop fake items. Protecting customer interests should be the top priority for e-commerce companies.

Conclusion: A Watershed Moment in E-commerce Regulation Delhi HC Counterfeit Ruling

This Delhi HC Counterfeit Ruling marks a watershed moment in e-commerce regulation. By denying safe harbor to platforms that enable counterfeiting, it aims to balance commercial interests with legal obligations. Its precedence will impact how online retail is conducted in India. With online shopping growing rapidly, this judgment helps ensure shopper security and the industry's integrity. It is a step towards protecting consumers from fake products by holding platforms accountable. However, buyers also have a role in reporting any suspect listings they encounter on websites.


What changes can marketplaces expect after this ruling?

Marketplaces will need stronger checks against counterfeits. They may have to verify sellers more thoroughly and monitor listings closely. Some may also rework seller profiles to avoid inadvertently helping infringers. Ultimately, platforms must balance business needs with protecting legitimate brands and shoppers.

What recourse do brands have if platforms don't comply?

If marketplaces don't take appropriate action after awareness, brands can approach courts for relief like injunctions. Non-compliance could result in platforms losing safe harbor protection and being held directly liable for sellers' actions, which will motivate compliance.

How will this affect consumers shopping online?

Consumers will have added assurance as genuine sellers and brands receive support. However, fake listings may still try to pass off. So buyers must check seller history and reviews before purchasing to avoid duping. They, too, should report any fakes noticed to platforms.

What are the key learnings for e-commerce stakeholders?

The key learning is that platforms can no longer ignore IP violations in the name of business. While enabling commerce, they must curb unlawful practices. Earnest verification, monitoring, and timely action as per court orders are now important for all stakeholders in India's booming e-retail sector. Overall, this aims to enhance trust in online shopping.

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