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  • Writer's pictureSophia Satapathy

3 Steps to Maneuver Defective Electronics Cases In India

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Purchasing electronic items like mobile phones, laptops, and home appliances has become common. However, the issue of receiving defective electronics is also rising rapidly. Whether it is a big brand or a small local shop, customers have complained about problems with their new gadgets.

Many electronics must be fixed or fixed within days or months of purchase. Sometimes, the defect is minor, but other times, it is major and makes the device useless. This is frustrating for any buyer who has to spend hard-earned money. As more people shop online, too, cases of receiving non-functional or wrongly described items are increasing.

This guide aims to help consumers who receive a defective electronic product. It will provide information on your rights as a customer, steps to resolve the issue, and remedies available under the law if needed. The purpose is to empower you to tackle the situation confidently instead of silently accepting a loss. Understanding the process can save you time and money while ensuring fair treatment from the seller.

Understanding What Makes an Electronic Product "Defective"

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For an electronic product to be considered defective under the law, it should not be working properly or up to the expected standards. The law defines a defective product as one with some faults, imperfections, or shortcomings in quality. It may also need more purity in specifications, as promised.

Some common issues that can make an electronic item defective are - it stops working within days of purchase, faces frequent technical glitches, displays abnormal signs of damage or wear and tear even when handled carefully, does not perform basic functions it is meant to, etc. The product may be substandard if it fails quality tests or does not match the specifications and performance of similar items in the market.

A product can also be defective if there are inaccuracies in the description provided by the seller. For example, if the seller said it has 4GB RAM, but it has only 2GB RAM. Even minor defects or discrepancies can make an electronic item defective under the law if it impacts the customer experience negatively. The key things to check are whether the product works properly, meets the expected quality standards, and matches the details given by the seller. If any of these are found lacking upon examination, the buyer can legally claim it as a defective purchase.

Know Your Rights as a Consumer

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According to the Consumer Protection Act, a consumer is defined as any person who buys goods or avails services for personal use, not commercial purposes. The buyer is considered a consumer as long as the purchase is made for self-use and not for reselling.

The law holds all parties involved in making a product available to consumers equally responsible in case of defects. This includes the manufacturer who makes the product, suppliers who provide materials, and sellers through whom the purchase is made. Whether it is a big brand or a small local shop, all such entities can be held liable under the consumer protection law.

If a product is found defective, you can seek a remedy as a consumer. The remedies available include replacing the faulty product with a functioning one, repairing defects, returning the full payment amount, and compensating for losses incurred due to the defects. The law gives a two-year period from the purchase date to claim these remedies.

It is advisable to first request the manufacturer/seller in writing to replace/repair the product. If they fail to address the issue, a formal complaint can be filed with the consumer court or by calling the National Consumer Helpline. The law empowers consumers to get defective products replaced or refunded smoothly.

First Steps - Contacting the Retailer/Manufacturer

If you have purchased a defective electronic product, the first step should be requesting the retailer or manufacturer to address the issue. It is advisable to send a written letter via email or post informing them about the defects noticed and seeking a return, replacement, or refund.

While the law does not specify a notice period, giving the concerned company at least 15 days to examine the product and take an appropriate call is best. Keep records of all communication, including delivery receipts, response emails, etc. This will help prove that you made attempts to reach an amicable solution.

Requesting a return/replacement through a formal letter has many benefits. It allows the company to solve the problem voluntarily without a legal battle. Most retailers/brands want to maintain goodwill and will try to resolve genuine complaints. If they fail to address the issue despite notice, you can consider filing a case with consumer court.

Pursuing negotiation in the initial stages helps save time and money in the long run. If the matter is closed with minimum hassle, it is a win-win for both parties. So, give written notice properly before resorting to other remedies under the law against a defective electronic purchase.

Escalating the Complaint

If the retailer or manufacturer does not respond to the letter requesting return/replacement of the defective electronic product, the next step is to send a formal legal notice. This notice can be sent via email or post and should mention initiating legal proceedings if the issue is not resolved within 15 days. It should inform them about your intent to approach consumer forums.

To file a complaint with the National Consumer Helpline (NCH), you can call the toll-free number 1800114000 and provide details of the defective purchase, copies of correspondence with the retailer, and a request for relief. Alternatively, you can also submit a grievance through the NCH website or mobile application.

It is important to note that, according to law, the consumer has only two years from the date of purchase to approach consumer commissions/courts against a defective product. So, if the matter remains unresolved despite notice, a complaint should be filed before the limitation period expires to protect legal rights.

Escalating the matter through NCH or courts becomes necessary when direct negotiation does not yield results. These bodies can then investigate properly and pass orders for replacement, refund, and compensation if the complaint is genuine.

Taking Legal Action

If the defective electronic product issue remains unresolved despite best efforts, the final option is to approach the consumer court for relief. As a consumer, you can file a complaint with the District, State, or National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission based on the value of the goods purchased.

If the electronic item was bought for commercial/business use rather than personal consumption, you must file a civil lawsuit in civil court instead of a consumer complaint. The limitation period is also 3 years in such cases.

When filing the case, ensure you attach all relevant documents as proof, such as the purchase receipt/invoice, correspondence with the retailer/manufacturer, notices issued by you, and their responses. This helps establish the facts of the defective purchase before the consumer forum.

Remember that, according to law, a complaint can only be filed within 2 years from the date of the incident for a consumer. So, timely initiation of legal proceedings becomes critical. The consumer court will examine the matter and pass appropriate orders for relief if the allegations are found to be true.

Taking the legal route thus becomes necessary when the pre-litigation efforts yield no result from the opposite party. It helps assert consumer rights through a judicial remedy.


Consumers have important rights regarding defective electronic products. If you receive an electronic product that does not work as advertised or develops faults, you can ask the manufacturer or seller to repair, replace, or refund it within a reasonable time frame. The law protects consumers from unsafe and substandard electronic goods. You should be aware of your entitlement to remedies without unnecessary hassle.

It is recommended that consumers keep documentation of all interactions regarding defective electronics. This could include photos of the issues, emails, letters, etc. Do not hesitate to file a complaint with regulatory authorities if the manufacturer or seller does not satisfactorily address the issue. Your rights do not end at simply returning or replacing the product.

If you need any clarification on the process to claim your rights as a consumer of defective electronics, please get in touch with us. Being informed of your legal protections will help you get a fair and timely resolution.


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